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Miller, Fredric D.

Using Classical Biological Control for Management of the Emerald Ash Borer

Digitization Status
Born digital
Date created
April 2021
Biological control (BC) is a pest management tactic involving purposeful manipulation of natural enemies to achieve a reduction in a pest’s status (Pedigo and Rice 2006). Biological control is not the same as natural control, as it may involve agents other than natural enemies, such as weather or food supply (Pedigo and Rice 2006). Pedigo and Rice (2006) state that, “the object of biological control is to introduce natural enemies or to manipulate existing ones to cause the pest population to fluctuate (be regulated) at a density below the economic-injury level (EIL),” i.e., the lowest number of insects that will cause economic damage. A parasitoid parasitizes and kills its host, is parasitic while immature (multiple individuals may develop on a single host), and is free-living as an adult. Parasitoids are usually wasps (order Hymenoptera) and flies (order Diptera). Endoparasitoids lay their eggs inside the host, and ectoparasitoids lay their eggs externally on the host.
Volume, Issue, Page Number
30, 2, 22-29