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Nowak, David J.
Dwyer, John F.

Urban and Community Forestry in the Northeast

Date created
One of the first considerations in developing a strong and comprehensive urban forestry program is determining the desired outcomes from managing and maintaining vegetation in cities. Urban trees offer a wide range of potential benefits to the urban environment and society. However, there also are a wide range of potential costs and, as with all ecosystems, numerous interactions that must be understood if society is to optimize the net benefits from urban vegetation. Inadequate understanding of the wide range of benefits, costs, and expected outcomes of urban vegetation management designs and plans, as well as interactions among them, may drastically reduce the contribution of vegetation toward improving urban life and the environment.
Alternate Title
Understanding the benefits and costs of urban forest ecosystems